History of New year tradition

HISTORY OF NEWYEAR and its TraditionsIn the fairly long history of humanity the celebration of New Year is found to have a pre-historic root. Since the era of the most ancient civilization a number of dates have been marked as the beginning of a new year by different people from different parts of the world. The diversity is due to the difference in their ethnic and cultural background.Today the New Year is celebrated all over the world on January 1. But this was not the case a few hundred years back. The wide spread acceptance of January 1 as the New Year is confined only within the past four hundred years.

The changeover: It was the Romans who first used January 1 as the beginning of the year in 153 B.C. Prior to that March 25, the date of the vernal equinox, was celebrated as their New Year’s Day. And this was considered to be the beginning of New Year by most Christian European countries during the early medieval era.The delayed acceptance of the changed date might be due to some of its inherent difficulties. The date was unusual. For, unlike the customs prevalent till then, no agricultural or seasonal significance was attached to it. Instead, it was just a civil date, the day after the elections when the consuls would assume their new positions in the Roman Empire. But the bigger problem the changed date posed, was difficulties in the calculation of the year. As the Romans moved their New Year’s Day backward almost three months to January 1, we have irregularities in our calendar. The months of September, October, November and December, originally mean, the seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth month respectively. Later, many of the Roman emperors had given new names to these months. September received names as “Germanucus”, “Antonius” and “Tacitus” under each of these emperors’ regime. Thus November also earned the varying names of “Domitianus”, “Faustinus” and “Romanus”.

The inconveniences led Julius Caesar to institute a new calendar. It was devised by the Greek astronomerSosigenes of Alexandria from the unrivaled Egyptiansolar calendar. Caesar wanted to change the date of the New Year from January 1 to a more logical date – to one of the solstices or equinoxes. However, it happened that January 1 of 45 B.C. was the date of a new moon.It would have been bad luck, or so regarded by the population, to change it.For his calendar reform, the Senate rewarded him by having the month of his birth, Quintilis, renamed “July” in his honor. Caesar’s grandnephew, the Emperor Augustus, had a similar honor bestowed on him when he corrected a mistake which had crept into the calculation of the leap year. Till then it had been observed every three years, instead of every four. He abolished all leap years between 8 B.C. and A.D. 8. Thus he set the calendar straight and earned for himself the renaming of Sextilis as “August”. This calendar did not witness significant reforms till 1582, when Pope Gregory XII incorporated our present method of calculation and dividing the year. It was the Pope who reinstituted the practice of observing New Year’s Day on January 1, regardless of the pre-Christian associations with that date. The Gregorian reforms also canceled ten days from October; Thursday, October 4, 1582, was followed by Friday, October 15, 1582. the old discrepancy was provided for by making only those century dates leap years that were that were divisible by 400. Thus although the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 were not leap years, the 2000 is.The global adoption: Catholic countries adopted it soon. Yet it took some time for the Protestants to follow suit. Finally Germany did adopt it in 1700, Great Britain in 1752, and Sweden in 1753. It was then necessary to drop 11 days from the calendar because 1700 had been a leap year.The Oriental countries through the influence of religious groups such as the Hindus, Taoists, Buddhists and Moslems, considered the new Calendar as the Christian Calendar, but also adopted it as their official one. Japan welcomed it in 1873 and China in 1912.The Eastern Orthodox adopted it even later, in 19924 and 1927, Russia took it twice – first in 1918 and after trying out its own calendars, again 1n 1924.

Qaid e Azam Day

Dear Readers, 

Once again, I would like to share you a very valuable information why Pakistan is celebrating the 25th of December as a holiday. The reason was the founder of Pakistan, Qaid e Azam, Muhammad Ali Jinnah was born on this day.  

Please see below a brief biography of Qaid e Azam, Pakistan’s life giver. 

He was born on 25th of December 1876 in Karachi. He opened his eyes in a mercantile family. His father Jinnah Ponja was a businessman. Quaid’s family was basically from Rajkot India they migrated towards Karachi to find better business opportunities. Mister Ponja was a prosperous merchant and he wanted his son to get the best education available. Muhammed Ali, started his education from Sindh Madrasatul Islam, then he went to Bombay for more education. After this he went to England where he studied law at Lincoln’s Inn. Quaid e Azam later told that he applied in Lincoln’s Inn because he saw Holy Prophet Mohammed peace be upon him’s name at the reception of the college. This shows the love Quaid e Azam had for Holy Prophet and Islam. Since the early days of his youth he was always a neat and clean boy. He was very well mannered, punctual and disciplined. He was a born leader and had all the essentials for a leader since his childhood. 

Jinnah created a nation and then demanded a separate homeland for them. This part of his life is the toughest and caused changes in the geography, culture and every aspect of life in South Asia.  

In March 23, 1940 Jinnah presided over a Muslim League session at Lahore, where the first official demand was made for the partition of India and the creation of the state of Pakistan, in which Muslims would be a majority. During three decades of political life, Jinnah had believed in the possibility of Hindu-Muslim unity, and it was with the utmost reluctance that he came to the view that partition was essential.

“We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral code, customs and calandar, history and tradition, aptitudes and ambitions; in short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all canons of international law, we are a nation” Quaid-e-Azam  

14 August 1947 was the day when we got our Homeland, our country, our Pakistan. It was his struggle and hard work and ability to lead us that made a dream come true. In recognition of his singular contribution, Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was nominated by the Muslim League as the Governor-General of Pakistan. He was governor general of a country with no resources and a burden of 8 million refugees coming from different corners of India to start their lives in their new country.  

Jinnah died by his devotion to Pakistan on 11 September, 1948.

Happy Eid-ul-Azha

Dear Readers,
 
I would like to take a moment to greet everybody Happy Eid-ul-Azha from the 20th till the 22nd
of December in Pakistan.
 
What is Eid-ul-Azha? 

We have two festivals. Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. The “festival of sacrifice”, Eid al-Adha, in Arabic, which is the greater of the two main festivals. It falls on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah and the following three days. It commemorates the time when Hazrat Ibrahim (Abraham) (peace be upon him) was willing to sacrifice his son Ismail as an act of total devotion to Allah. In the event, a sheep was sacrificed in Ismail’s stead as a symbol of Ibrahim’s devotion.

It is the reason why all the Muslim family has to have a sheep or a goat offered on this special day.
With the world’s present situation and crises, we need to take time to remember to take a moment to offer our prayers and to remember Allah and His continuous Blessings to all of us
I believe whether it is the day of the Eid or not, and whether we are Muslims or have a different religion, we should take time to say thank you for each day, for the chance to see the sunrise every morning, a chance to breathe the air around us, a chance to have the energy to do our daily work, a chance to share a tea with a colleague and most of all to have the chance to lift our heads and see all these wondrous things He has made for us to enjoy.

Always take a chance and enjoy your day.

.Eid Greeting

Regards,

Rana

Project Web Standards

The Main Ingredients of Every

Project
Nothing but the Essentials
Web Standards
we write lean, semantic code that adheres to the W3C’s Web Standards guidelines.
This helps cut development time, in turn keeping costs down.
But most importantly, creates the best experience possible for your users.


Content Management

With the help of Word Press, a very powerful, open source publishing tool,
we leave you with full control of your site. Update or create content whenever you want,
from wherever you are. As long as you have an internet connection, you’re good to go!

Project Collaboration
While collaborating, sharing files, keeping track of to-do items and important
dates and tracking my time i use multiple applications that would be helpful not only for us but
also support our customers. In this way we ensure a safe and secure
place to share and store information that can be accessed at any time.

Communication

Solid communication is one of the most important aspects of producing a great product,
whatever it may be. While we are on the job, you can be reached via email, instant messenger and voice.

Project Indegriends

SEO Web Design Optimization

Few things developer should know for “Design Optimization”. 

Design Optimization
How to make the design, search engine friendly
In this section we work on how to design the webpage to appear the same to both the Search Engine and
the users? The key to Design SEO is to
Keep It Simple (KIS).
A page with complicated design elements and pictures will not help much in SEO.
The following explains how the webpage design affects the SERP (Search Engine Result Page).

Optimize Page Size
This not only helps Search Engine to have an easier time indexing your site but also helps
you to save valuable resources. Keeping everything (text and images) under 15KB is perfect.

Navigation Menu for Search Engine
Not only users need to have an easy to use navigation menu for your site but Search Engine
also needs the information of inter-linking in your site. Avoid fanciful dynamic JavaScript
menu because Search Engine does not understand them and the links will be left
out eventually.
Using text links for navigation is always preferred.

Avoid Frames
There are several problems for Search Engine to index your page if the page
is made up of frames. Search Engine index single pages; therefore,
each framed page is indexed separately.
One advice:
Avoid frames if you are going for SEO.

Keep it Simple and Valid
All in all, Search Engine loves simple webpage with rich content.
Always validate your webpage so that Search Engine will not encounter errors along the way.
We never know what the spiders will do when they encounter problems.
Do they ignore and proceed? Or worst, give up.

Optimize Flash Embedded Websites
Flash movies are getting more popular nowadays because of their visual and audio effects.
User always likes to see graphics and images but this is not the case for
Search Engine.
Search Engines do not have the ability to extract 100% of the Flash content so your
potential customers may not even know about your site when they are doing a search.

4 zones of Modern Web Design

4 Zones

Thanks to one my friend for providing this picture.

Rana

Cisco PIX Firewall

One of my friend asked me, Do you know how to do configuration of Cisco PIX and how to configure PPPoE.

I researched on it and wanted to share little bit, This article will helps network guy not software developer 🙂  

What Does a PIX Do?

The PIX is a firewall appliance based on a hardened, specially built operating system, PIX OS, minimizing possible OS-specific security holes. The PIX has received ICSA Firewall and IPsec certification as well as Common Criteria EAL4 evaluation status.

PIX firewalls provide a wide range of security and networking services including:

  • Network Address Translation (NAT) or Port Address Translation (PAT)
  • content filtering (Java/ActiveX)
  • URL filtering
  • IPsec VPN
  • support for leading X.509 PKI solutions
  • DHCP client/server
  • PPPoE support
  • advanced security services for multimedia applications and protocols including Voice over IP (VoIP), H.323, SIP, Skinny and Microsoft NetMeeting
  • AAA (RADIUS/TACACS+) integration

      Cisco Pix

for more details Click here

Three Days Conference On Skill Enhancement of Human Capital

Venue: Aiwan-e-Iqbal Egerton Road Lahore
Date: December 13, 14, 15 (Thursday, Friday, Saturday)
Timings: 10:00a.m to 4:00p.m
   
 
Chief Coordinator: Ali Abbas HR Officer (Training & Development) Superior Group of Colleges
For Further information Call: 111-00-00-78 Mobile: 0321-419.0590, 0300-405.5237, 0300-410.3852

REGISTER FREE ONLINE AT
   www.superior.edu.pk
Last date for Registration: Dec 12, 2007
Main Campus: 31- Tipu Block, New Garden Town, Ferozepur Road, Lahore